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The winner receives a scholarship from KidsRights to enable him or her to obtain education up until and including the university degree. Secondly, financial care is made available to support the winner and his or her family in livelihood costs, where needed. This years nominees once again demonstrate that children are changemakers.
- World War I (Sir Tony Robinsons Weird World of Wonders Book 1).
- Stray Souls (Magicals Anonymous Book 1).
Get inspired by their stories. Visit our frequently asked questions for answers on questions you might have. Libya had other advantages as well — less political risk, no need for transit through the Suez Canal or around the Horn of Africa, closeness to refineries in Italy and France, and very high quality, light sweet crude. In fact, by , its output of about 3 million barrels per day exceeded that of Saudi Arabia.
Interestingly, most of the Libyan oil production was by independent oil companies who, unlike the major oil companies, did not have their own outlets or reasons to restrain production. Politics, economics, and geography forced all of them to crowd the European market and sell at whatever price they could get. One of the major independents that we will talk more about in the next chapter was Occidental Petroleum, led by Dr.
Like Gulbenkian and others in oil, he was a driven hard worker, trader, and a wealthy art collector who had varied interests. Occidental hit oil in Libya in , and hit it big. But their heavy dependence on the Libyan oil concerned Hammer. The question then was, why so many oil companies or new comers in the oil industry?
Among the reasons were better oil exploration and production technology, better communication technology, cheaper transportation, lenient foreign tax laws, and higher rate of return, pro-rationing in the US that encouraged foreign exploration, and growing demand for oil. More oil being discovered and produced resulted in lower prices for consumers and reduced profitability for the companies and producing countries. To give an illustration of the rapid growth of newcomers, in , , and , the number of oil companies that operated in the Middle East were 9, 19, and 81 respectively.
Between and , it is estimated that more than companies entered the non-US or foreign oil market, including 15 large US oil companies, 20 medium US oil companies, 10 large US gas companies, and 25 non-US firms. They generally act together in price and policy to keep revenue high. As mentioned above, in the s and 60s, the industry clearly moved closer to perfect competition, when multiple smaller independent firms compete and economic profit is reduced. The OPEC nations disagreed over how to handle the excess supply especially among the bitter rivals and major producers Saudi Arabia and Iran.
The oil companies were forced to restrain production in the Persian Gulf.
But where should the production be limited - Saudi Arabia or Iran? After the outbreak of war between Israel and the Arabs in , President Richard Nixon warned Arab oil producers that they wouldn't be able to sell their black gold at exorbitant rates. THE point was, and remains, that oil and not man has been in the saddle -- ever since man discovered it could be used to make light and fuel modern society. The point was, and is, that oil has meant more than fabulous wealth and power; it has created an umbilical dependency.
Modern transportation, factories and food production feed on oil. Almost nothing that makes modern man and society go round can work without oil. In this way, it surpasses gold and coal and all the other precious resources that have driven history. From this central insight, Mr. Yergin constructs his three themes. First, oil has been at the heart of "the rise and development of capitalism and modern business. Since , Saudi Arabia alone has earned over a trillion dollars from oil. Yet Mr. Yergin does not say enough about why a nation like the Soviet Union has failed economically, though it remains the single largest oil producing country.
Nor does he take full note of why Germany and Japan have thrived despite their enormous dependence on oil imports. The most disciplined nations manage quite well regardless. View all New York Times newsletters. The second theme of "The Prize" is the intimate relationship of oil with "national strategies and global politics and power. Yergin fails to explore how Germany and Japan were able to make themselves mighty militarily without oil.
But the fact remains that the Allies defeated Germany in both world wars in no small measure because of German oil shortages.
Japan went to war against the United States in in good part to establish secure oil supplies in Southeast Asia, and failed when Allied naval power cut off those supplies. And oil is so potent that a nation of 17 million like Iraq can support a force of a million men and the fourth most powerful military establishment in the world. Still, a much smaller country and one without oil, Israel, has been able to withstand the forces of the oil-rich Arab nations, including Iraq.
Nonetheless, the theme generally holds. It holds because of the truth of the third theme, that we have become a "Hydrocarbon Society," peopled by "Hydrocarbon Man. The interminable gas lines for autos during shortages, and the spiraling inflation and insuperable poverty of developing nations as oil prices rise, testify to the all-pervasive dominance of oil.
Yergin worries about this terrible dependency that so distorts our foreign policies and destroys our environment in an all-too-cursory concluding chapter. To the end, he does not want to step out of his role as historian and undermine the balance and integrity of his work. But he has left the reader with enough to take the next step. There is the matter of the oil mentality and the matter of choice.natimimislu.ml
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The oil mind, with rare exceptions, has been marked with arrogance. It has taken the gift of the modern gods and turned it to power -- for windfall profits, against most kinds of government regulation and against the causes of conservation and environmentalism. It has inspired demons in the forms of the deposed and dead Shah of Iran, Col.
Muammar el-Qaddafi of Libya and Saddam Hussein. For the United States and other nations to have mortgaged their environmental heritage to oil has been inexcusable. For the United States and others to have grown so dependent for their well-being on a part of the world that is politically unstable and enthralled by religious fanatics and terrorists has been an act of gargantuan irresponsibility. The very telling of the oil story as well as Mr.
Yergin does it creates a sense of inevitability. But there have been alternatives, and there are alternatives -- nuclear power, solar power -- even now, especially now. Daniel Yergin wrote out every word of "The Prize" in longhand.